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I. ABSTRACT

In recent years mass cultivation technology—using biotech tissue culture and genetically modified species—has become more and more mainstream within the plant seedling industry.

Based on market needs and the current development level of breeding technologies, the biotech seedling products industry in Taiwan is currently focused on the development of orchid species, with garden bulbs of cut blooms and ornamental plants coming in second. Orchid species primarily consist of the Phalaenopsis cadmium and Oncidium species.

Analyzing the flowering bloom sub-sector, one sees that problems exist that are preventing the industry from fully flourishing. These problems include inadequate marketing information, production technology and a range of management capability with the industry that varies widely from very good to extremely poor. The overall quality of floricultural products is inconsistent, and affects the country’s international competitiveness in this industry. In order to upgrade the quality level of the industry and ensure that Taiwan is ready to face the challenges posed by its entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), the industry should focus more on resource integration, establish a marketing service and information system, and aggressively set up an accreditation system for choosing only the most healthy seedlings to ensure top notch quality. Furthermore, Taiwan should promote an international accreditation system for plant safety evaluation, the setting up of which will be advantageous for the country’s export of transgenic plants and other similar products.

In implementing such a system, aside from strengthening tissue culture technology and the development of related technology for transgenic species, viral detection and testing, as well as mutation screening technology, aggressive efforts are also being made to assist business owners in establishing reasonable production procedures and QA control protocols. Through these, it is hoped that the production structure, technology, and management systems of the industry’s business owners may be improved, in turn lowering production costs and in the process, enhancing the international competitiveness of Taiwan’s biotech seedling products.

II. INDUSTRY DEFINITION AND CATEGORIES

Plant seedling biotech products refer to plant seedlings cultivated and produced using non-germ sowing, tissue or cell culture, cell body combination, genetic engineering, and other biotechnological procedures.

III. CURRENT SITUATION OF THE INDUSTRY

A. Industry structure

The current annual production value of Taiwan’s biotech seedling industry is pegged at about NT$2.5 billion. Bottled seedling production volume is around 90 million every year; with related seedlings totaling around 40 million units. The last five years have seen the number of business owners in the seedling industry peaking at 100, with the industry employing over 800 people. About 10 percent operate in the form of companies, implying they can develop new products, develop and improve cultivation technology, and have marketing capabilities. Typically, the capital size of such companies is around NT$100 million. The other 90 percent are mainly family-owned enterprises, the majority of which accept company-commissioned business. The capital size of such enterprises is about NT$15 million.

Basically, many plant seedling businesses develop by answering to market demand one step at a time. The vertical division of labor is very evident, and many upstream companies accept orders from abroad. Aside from a few companies that produce all their own products, many commission downstream companies to produce seedlings on their behalf in order to make deliveries on time.
Large-scale local companies involved in plant seedling biotech and the major products they produce are as follows:

Company name No. of operational units Major species produced
I-Hsin Biotech Corporation 120 Phalaenopsis cadmium, Oncidium, cymbidium
Perfect Butterfly Orchid Service Center 65 Phalaenopsis cadmium
Yu Pin Biotech Corporation 55 Phalaenopsis cadmium
Sogo Team Co., Ltd 43 Phalaenopsis cadmium
Grand Biotech, Inc. 40 Phalenopsis cadmium, cut flowers, ornamental plants, garden bulbs
King Car Biotech Corporation 32 Phalaenopsis cadmium
Chung Hun Biotech Corporation 31 Phalaenopsis cadmium, Oncidium, Cymbidium, Chinese orchids
Pao Lung Biotech Corporation 25 Phalaenopsis cadmium, Oncidium, Chinese orchids, Cypripedioideae, cut flowers, ornamental plants, garden bulbs, wasabi, etc.
San Ho National Arts Workshop 24 Phalaenopsis cadmium, cattleya orchids, Dendrobium, Oncidium, Cymbidium, Chinese orchids
Taida Horticultural Co., Ltd 23 Phalaenopsis cadmium, Oncidium, cattleya orchids, Chinese orchids
Feng Yuan Orchidarium 20 Oncidium, Phalaenopsis cadmium, Cymbidium
Luxe Enterprises Ltd 17 Phalaenopsis cadmium
S & B Biological Technologies 15 Oncidium, Phalaenopsis cadmium, banana seedlings
Gin-Sheng Orchidarium 15 Phalaenopsis cadmium
Chia-Chang Orchidarium 15 Phalaenopsis cadmium, cattleya orchids, Dendrobium

B. Marketing channels

The marketing of local plant seedlings abroad is dominated by upstream companies. Aside from a small portion of companies which produce all their own products, the majority commission downstream companies to produce the seedlings on their behalf. 72 percent of all orchid seedlings produced in Taiwan are for the domestic market, with the rest being exported. Phalaenopsis cadmium is the dominant local orchid species, making up the bulk of orchids exported abroad. This species makes up 42 percent of local production, with Oncidium coming in second at 19 percent. Other orchid species such as cattleya orchids, Dendrobiums, Cypripedioideae, Cymbidium, and Chinese orchids, account for 7-8 percent of the total production each. Cadmium bulbs exports depend on the size of the bulb; in percentage terms exports of small, medium-sized, and large bulbs are 40 percent, 54 percent and 77 percent of the entire production volume respectively. Major export markets include Japan, South Korea, Europe, and the US. Notably, exports of related seedlings to mainland China have seen a significant increase in the last two years.

IV. MARKET/PRODUCT ANALYSIS

A. Global market

Currently the global plant seedling biotech product line consists mainly of flower bulbs. However, other products such as fruit trees, vegetables, medicinal plants, forest trees, and others also utilize tissue culture technology to produce healthy seedlings and to speed up mass production. Due to the needs of the industry, it is anticipated that industry value will show significant signs of growth. According to 1999 statistics, the total size of world flower bulb exports is about US$8 billion, with Holland the origin of more than a 55 percent of worldwide bulb exports. The size of Taiwan’s flower exports ranks the nation 19th in the world, making up 0.58 percent of the world export volume total.
 

Holland, the US, and Japan lead the pack in terms of intellectual property and technological development in the international seedling market, controlling 90 percent of the patent rights to new species. Even though the competitiveness of Taiwan’s orchid industry is high, with its Phalaenopsis cadmium species already No. 1 in the world, in global terms it is overall relatively weak. It is hoped that the ongoing development of biotechnology will continue to produce new species and new types of products to expand the export market for Taiwan-produced plant seedlings.

Agricultural production, with floriculture no exception, is largely influenced by the weather. Holland, the US, and Japan are all located in temperate regions, with the advantages offered by the climate in such regions being very difficult to challenge from an outside country’s point of view. With Taiwan being located in the subtropical zone, using the country’s geographical and climatic conditions it should aggressively develop unique subtropical seedlings to carve a niche in the market and create an identity separate from foreign developed seedlings. This will be a great help in gaining a strong foothold on international markets.

B. Domestic market

Based on the demands of the market as well as the development level of personal species, the domestic tissue culture industry has primarily focused on orchid species; accounting for 85 percent of the industry total, with the other 15 percent spread among cut blooms, ornamental plants, garden bulbs, and medicinal plants. The total annual production volume is about 90 million seedlings. Aside from orchids, the production of other biotech seedlings has not been given due importance by the local industry; major reasons for this include the absence of personal species; limited domestic market demand, and difficulties in opening up international markets.

V. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

A, Current technological situation

The plant seedling biotech industry uses agriculture and horticulture of tissue culture, cell culture, propagation technology as well as the seedlings of forests woods and crops or crop seedlings produced from genetic engineering.

The development of the biotech seedling industry needs to be founded on traditional culturing, cultivation, and post-harvest handling procedures. The abovementioned biological technologies are needed to break through the technological bottleneck affecting the industry’s competitiveness and promote transformation within it. Taiwan’s subtropical plant seedling production technology has made great progress; for example, subtropical butterfly orchids used to just be cultivated for fun. During the last 20 years, through the combined efforts of business owners and government research agencies, great strides have been made in species selection, tissue culture technology, hothouse cultivation, and post harvest technologies. It is precisely because of the continuous development of new species and cultivation technologies that the quality of Taiwan’s butterfly orchids is unmatched, enabling it to establish a sterling international reputation and take the leading position in global markets.

Currently, R&D of genomic transfer is focused on functional genes which have high economic value to raise the quality level of targeted products and to make sure that they are resistant to adverse environmental factors to lower losses. For ornamental plants, emphasis is placed on the lifespan of the flowers as well as on their colors and shapes, with the length of freshness also a priority. In the area of genetic species selection and nurturing, aside from papaya genetically modified species – already in commercial production – tomatoes, rice and potatoes have already entered the quarantined in-field experiment stage; many more genetically- transferred species are in the laboratory at the functional assessment experimental stage.

B. R&D Trends

Plant seedling biotech is not only a technology-intensive, capital intensive, and labor-intensive industry, but it is also a knowledge-based one. Skyrocketing labor capital notwithstanding, Taiwan’s butterfly orchids are still highly competitive. The major reason behind this is that business owners possess the technology needed to produce this product; this particular type of high technology needs to be constantly developed and existing technologies should also be constantly improved to maintain Taiwan’s competitive edge. Consequently, R&D on butterfly orchids look to the industry, government, and academic sectors to continue research in improving the species, non-germ healthy seedling cultivation technology, and other factors to expand the market share of butterfly orchids in international market.

Furthermore, other subtropical varieties such as Oncidium, cymbidium, cattleya orchids as well as fruit trees, vegetables, medicinal plants, forest trees, and other seedlings have great potential. The three sectors should conduct further research on species selection, tissue culture technology, hothouse incubation technology, and so on. Focusing on these factors may result in the local industry reaching a world-leading position.

Recent years have seen the development in genetic engineering technology grow in leaps and bounds worldwide. Using genetic engineering technology can shorten the time span of species incubation and can produce species unable to be produced through traditional means. Aside from continuing to focus on the present R&D on genomic transfer technology which raises the value of agricultural products, in the future, research will bring results which will promote the use of crops to serve as bioreactors to produce high-value-added medicinal products. In addition, we look forward to strengthening the establishment of related technology platforms as well as the assessment and management of biological safety. Through technology transfer, business owners should be able to get hold of these improvements to enhance their competitiveness.

R&D focus points are as follows:

1. Research of genetic engineering technology, including flower blooms, fruit trees, vegetables, medicinal plants, forest trees, and other genetically-modified products

2. Mass production technology for plant tissue culture

3. Technology for plant cell culture

4. Production methods for seedlings of bioreactors and technology for using plant seedlings to produce high-value medicines.

5. Technology for the rapid detection of plant viruses

6. Technology for the rapid detection of seedling genetic mutations

C. Domestic human resource analysis

1. R&D personnel total of around 230 people

 (1) Council of Agriculture and other related agencies have about 50 people.

 (2) Private biotech companies employs about 30 people

 (3) Schools and other non-profit organizations have another 150 people

2. Manufacturing personnel (including manufacturing and management personnel) have about 810 people

 (1) Council of Agriculture seedling culture farm has about 10 people

 (2) Private biotech companies have about 800 people.

VI. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS

A. Industry competitive analysis

1. Taiwan investment advantages

 a. a. In addition to its geographical advantage, Taiwan already has a stable local market demand. This marketing platform helps in continued efforts to open other potential markets such as Japan, the US, Mainland China, and other countries.

 b. The government invests an average of several hundreds of millions of dollars every year on research institutions for related studies on plant seedling technology. This has not only laid a strong technological foundation but it has also trained the talent needed to complement the development of the industry.

 c. Upstream and downstream industry structure is complete; aggressive efforts are being poured into opening up international markets and guide the market for plant seedling biotech businesses. The plant seedling industry is not only technologically intensive, but it is also capital and labor intensive as well. Being a knowledge industry, it is necessary to have R&D and innovation support. The results and personnel trained in academic research entities over recent years is the major reason that attracts foreign companies to invest in Taiwan.

 d. Business owners enjoy tax breaks and other incentives; the intellectual property rights of the foreign investors are always guaranteed. In addition, R&D is greatly rewarded; patent rights and professional expertise can be valuated and considered products.

B. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT)

By analyzing the plant seedling industry based on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, one would be able to clarify Taiwan’s strong and weak points as well as the opportunities and threats that exist in the current market.

 1. Industry Strengths

 A. The seedling industry is capital and technology intensive; its industry value is high and unit prices are high as well, making it extremely appropriate for Taiwan’s agricultural structure and technological density. It may become one of the potential major focus industries of the country after joining WTO.

 B. The government strongly supports the development of a knowledge economy, providing agriculture with a way to create changes within the industry. The country also boasts of excellent plant tissue culture technology; a number of research agencies and businesses already have extensive knowledge and experience, which more or less creates a very competitive niche. For example: exports of orchid seedlings currently enjoy significant growth every year.

 C. Many people are involved in genetic engineering and cell culture technology, and their standards are very high. A new generation of farmers has had the benefit of good education; they easily accept new scientific concepts, which provides a strong foundation for the development of the biotech industry in Taiwan.

 2. Industry weaknesses

 A. Information on emerging crop types, species, and on the industry as a whole is very limited. There is a need to improve R&D as well as to establish seedling control systems and industry information service systems.

 B. Technological platforms that can create major business opportunities are still limited; capital is sorely needed to improve the R&D of related technology.之研發。

 C. Longer time is required of agricultural and horticultural species improvements. Intellectual property protection and biological safety management are areas that still need a lot of attention.

 3. Industry opportunities

 A.  Taking advantage of Taiwan’s geographical and climatic conditions, aggressively developing indigenous subtropical plant seedlings provide a unique selling point apart from foreign environments and products, allowing Taiwan to enter international markets with niche products.

 B. With the establishment of the Taiwan agricultural strategic alliance, the seedling industry is able to gather industry members as well as groups outside of the industry to promote a comprehensive business system, lowering production and marketing costs, reaping many economic benefits.

 4. Industry threats

 A. Most local businesses are small and do not have sufficient R&D capabilities. After Taiwan’s entry into the WTO, the profit margins of these businesses may go down, seriously affecting the desire of such companies to further invest in the industry.

 B. Taiwan companies have gone to mainland China to produce similarly competitive plant seedling products. What is worrisome is that this may adversely affect the actual results of domestic technological R&D.

B. Current development bottlenecks

1. Industry bottlenecks

    a. Many businesses are small, the quality of management is insufficient, and marketing information is inadequate.

    b. R&D capital invested by the industry in plant seedling biotech is inadequate, being currently largely dependent on government research agencies.

    c. Although there are many academic research personnel, R&D personnel of industry related biotech is sadly lacking. This is why it is imperative that we see an increase in cooperative ventures between industry and the academic sector.

    d. Aside from Phalaenopsis cadmium, Oncidiums, and other rare products, which are internationally competitive, products offered currently lack strong selling advantages. There is certainly room for improvement in terms of enhancing international competitiveness.。

2. Crucial technological bottlenecks

    a. Functional gene research and selection of genes with economic value.

    b. Gene recombination and gene transfer engineering technology

    c. Assessment technology for the biological safety of genetically transferred species.

    d. Incubation of emergent crop varieties and commercialized species

    e. Mass production technology for tissue culture

    f. Rapid detection technology for plant viruses

    g. Rapid detection technology for seedling hereditary mutations

VII. INDUSTRY POLICY SITUATION

A. Future development focus

1. Complementing the seedling biotech industry policy focus of the Council of Agriculture (COA), the major focus includes improving the culturing of species, developing new emergent varieties, and strengthening the R&D of mass production technology for tissue culture to increase international market share.

2. Improving the R&D of detection technology for plant viruses and seedling hereditary mutations, establishing a system for accrediting good plant breeds.

3. Strengthening R&D of genetic engineering technology, establishing a comprehensive assessment and management system for genetically transferred plant and animal safety.

4. Hiring and training of personnel.

B. Supervision strategy

1. Using Taiwan’s excellent so-called ‘traditional’ technology, research agencies should speed up the establishment of a technological platform related to industry development as well as prioritize technological transfers to business owners.

2. Promote emerging major strategic industries through agriculture-related incentive schemes, focusing on companies involved in applied non-germ sowing, tissue or cell culture, cell combination, genetic engineering, and other biotechnologies. Those which qualify in terms of investment or added investment as stated in the incentive program may apply for the stockholder investment incentive scheme of the ‘Promotion of Industry Upgrade,’ as stated in Article 8 of the taxation scheme for non-business entities as stated in Article 9.

3. Integrate existing resources; strengthen the promotion of cooperative ventures between research entities and businesses. Set up a plant seedling innovation incubation center using the talents and facilities of schools and research agencies as well as the R&D funding from the government as the R&D focus of upstream and mid-stream plant seedling technology. Then, through technology transfer, encourage companies to go into mass production and commercialization of the research results.

4. Implement regulations regarding ownership of academic R&D results to speed up technological transfers from research agencies to business owners.

5. Add on or amend existing plant seedling laws, putting into full practice execution of new species naming and patent registration in order to protect intellectual property rights.

6. Establish a good and sound seedling accreditation system, strengthening development of detection and inspection system for plant virus and plant genetic mutation; supervise business owners in producing good seedlings.

7. Bring in R&D, production, marketing, management and legal agricultural personnel from other countries to speed up the training and education of Taiwan’s local R&D personnel and industry leaders.

C. Study of current policies

1. The main focus of development in the plant seedling biotech industry is the selection of items which have unique qualities. By using Taiwan’s topnotch traditional technology, each research agency speeds up the establishment of technology platforms for industry development and conducts technological transfer to local businesses. Currently, the Council of Agriculture invests an annual budget of NT$120 million, while the National Science Council invests NT$100 million, primarily spent on plant seedling biotech R&D. Basically, the subsidy from the National Science Council is intended for upstream and mid-stream researches, while the subsidy from the Council of Agriculture is for mid-stream and downstream research. In order to effectively make use of the government’s limited funding, manpower, equipment, and others, these two agencies must strengthen the integration of the vertical division of labor as well as improve horizontal linking and integration.

2. Plant seedling biotech is a knowledge-based industry; therefore, protection of intellectual property rights is extremely important. Aside from amending the plant seedling law, the association has already expanded the scope of suitable crop species; this may be able to further encourage businesses to apply for patents with the Intellectual Property Office.

3. In answer to the rapid development of genetic engineering technology, several clauses have been added to the plant seedling law, including one that forbids any entry, exit, sale or widespread cultivation of genome transfer plant without permission from a central government agency. To make the laws more encompassing, the association needs to draft ‘genome transfer plant in-field testing management regulations’ as well as strengthen the entry and exit of genome transfer plant seedlings and in-field seedling management, to be able to establish a comprehensive biological safety assessment and management system. Related laws and regulations on biological safety management should conform to international laws.

VIII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  A. Administrative plans of the Bureau of Agriculture:

Currently, Taiwan’s domestic plant tissue culture technology is at a well-developed level; it has already been used in the commercial production of many crop seedlings. In the future, it is anticipated that the industry value will continue to grow as various types of technology are developed and breakthroughs occur. As for the benefits brought about by development of genetically modified crops, because of the involvement of biological safety assessment and management, it may take a few more years before concrete results are seen. Consequently, R&D of plant seedling technology should prioritize tissue culture and genetic engineering. The country must continue to pursue R&D aggressively as well as to fully implement technological transfer, in order to enhance the competitiveness of its plant seedling biotech industry.

1. Short term (2003-2005) development goals

a. Technological aspect

i Complete functional genome analysis of aquatic rice and tomatoes as well carrying out production application researches.

ii Select Phalaepnosis cadmium, Oncidiums, and other orchid species as subjects for functional genome research. Based on the needs of the industry’s development and biological diversity, establish various major genome databases to enhance R&D capabilities in the field of plant genetic engineering.

iii Speed up the culturing of various genetic plants and animals which are virus-resistant, bug-resistant; able to withstand adverse environments; plants that can be kept fresh for longer periods of time, containing many high value proteins; work on genetic transfer for flowers with special colors and shapes.

iv Carry out the quarantine in-field biological safety evaluation tests for Papaya ringspot virus-resistant genetically modified papaya, soyabean mosaic virus-resistant genetically modified tomatoes, Phalaenopsis cadmium with delayed aging petals, genetically modified rice with iron protein, low-liqnin genetically-modified, bug-resistant, and environment resistant pakchoi.

v Build up major virus-free, healthy seedling breeding technology, strengthening our country’s competitiveness in the seedling industry. Develop sprout propagation technology, tissue culture technology, and others to solve the issue of incompatible hybridization, enhancing breeding efficiency.

vi Establish production automation systems, computerized bar code management systems, and viral detection systems for flower seedling tissue culture as well as executing technological transfer to local businesses.

b. Administrative aspect

i Establish accreditation systems for flowering tissue culture and healthy seedlings, enhancing the export competitiveness of the country’s seedling culture.

ii Draft management regulations governing genetically transferred animal and plant safety, establishing quarantine field testing sites, developing biological safety assessment technology to establish genetically transferred plant and animal safety assessment and management systems.

iii Promote the amendment of laws governing plant seedlings, expanding the scope of crop utilization, and strengthening the protection of new breeds.

iv Enhance promotion of cooperative ventures between industry and academic sectors.

v Promote emerging major strategic industries through the implementation of agricultural incentive programs.

2. Mid-term (2006-2008) development goals

a. Technological aspects

i Carry out functional genome research on orchid species, aquatic rice, and tomatoes, building various major gene databases as a foundation for culture research.

ii Continue to speed up the cultivation of various genetically modified plant products, which are virus-resistant, bug-resistant; able to withstand adverse environments; able to be kept fresh for longer periods of time, and contain many high value proteins; work on the genetically modified flowers with special colors and shapes.

iii Continue to strengthen biological safety assessment tests for genetically modified crops.

iv Continue to improve the development of virus-free healthy seedling cultivation technology for major agricultural crops and forest tree species. Develop cell culture technology, raising the standards of secondary metabolic crop production technology to be applied in the production of Chinese herbal medicine.

b. Administrative aspect

i Implement plant seedling laws, strengthening the protection of new species.

ii Promote implementation of the Industrial Technology Development Program.

iii Set up a plant seedling biotech innovation incubation center, training biotech personnel to improve their R&D capabilities.

iv Continue the promotion of cooperation between industry and the academic sector as well as implementing R&D technological transfer.

v Continue to promote major emergent strategic industries through the implementation of agricultural incentive programs.

vi Set up a comprehensive genetically modified plant biological safety assessment and management system to strengthen the management of such plant cultures.

3. Long-term (2009-2012) development goals

a. Technical aspect

i Complete functional gene research on orchid species, aquatic rice, and tomatoes as well as applying the results to the industrial sector.

ii Continue to speed up the cultivation of various genetically modified plant products, which are virus-resistant, bug-resistant; able to withstand adverse environments; able to be kept fresh for longer periods of time, and containing many high value proteins; work on the genetic modification of flowers with special colors and shapes.

iii Continue to improve safety assessment tests of genome crops in quarantine fields.

iv Continue to improve the development of virus-free healthy seedling cultivation technology for major agricultural crops and forest tree species. Develop plant bioreactor technology, to establish production technology for high value medicinal drugs.

b. Administrative aspect

i Promote the establishment of an international accreditation system for assessing the safety of genetically transferred plants, in order to increase export of Taiwan’s genetically transferred plants and other products.

ii Continue to promote the implementation of the Industrial Technology Development Program.

iii Continue the training of R&D personnel, bringing in emergent technologies to improve R&D capabilities.

iv Continue to promote cooperative ventures between the industrial and academic sectors, carrying out technology transfer.

v Continue the promotion of major emergent strategic industries through the implementation of agricultural incentive programs.

vi Continue to set up a comprehensive genetically modified plant biological safety assessment and management system to strengthen the management of such plant culture.

  B. Recommendations for cross-departmental cooperation

The annual R&D budget for domestic plant seedling biotechnology is about NT$220 million, received from the Council of Agriculture and the National Science Council. Because of this, research results coming as a result of spending through these funds belong to these two agencies. In order to effectively make use of the government’s limited resources and ensure the promotion of the research results, the vertical division of labor and horizontal communication and integration between these two agencies should be enhanced.

The National Science Council is responsible for the assessment and management of genetically modified plants at the experimental stage. On the other hand, the Council of Agriculture is in charge of the project at the field production stage, while the Department of Health is responsible for the safety of the products making their way onto the market. Currently, these three agencies have already drafted related laws and regulations, and they have also established assessment and management systems. With the progress made in technology as well as changes occurring in the international front, it is very evident that the existing laws are inadequate to meet the needs of the industry. It is therefore anticipated that new regulations governing the safety management of laboratories as well as the entry and exit management of genetically transferred plants will be drawn up.

Short-, mid-, and long-term goals of the agricultural biotech plant seedling industry ( assessment chart 1 )

  Assessment items Current status ( 2002 ) Short term ( 2003-2005 )
Upstream Annual presented theses (No. of volumes) 15 20
Annual approved patents (No. of cases) 0 2
Mid-stream Annual technological transfer (No. of cases / income) 0 case/NT$0 5 cases/
NT$200,000
Annual cooperative ventures between industry and academic sectors/technological services (No. of cases) 10 20
No. of technology brought in (No. of cases annually) 0 5
Annual promotional activities (e.g. symposia or exhibition) 5 sessions 5 sessions
Basic Infrastructure Amendment and drafting of laws

Establishment of core facilities

1. Amend plant seedling law

2. Formulate test management regulations for genetically modified plant quarantine fields

3. Draw up authorization regulations for technology resulting from agricultural research Formulate regulations governing intellectual property applications for R&D results.

4. Formulate regulations governing intellectual property applications for R&D results.

5. Draw up review regulations governing the modification of non-urban lands into lands for agricultural biotech R&D use as well as for business production facilities.

6. Formulate implementation points for the Industrial Technology Development Program for the agricultural biotech industry.

Estimated completion

1. Amendment of the plant seedling law.

2. Formulate test management regulations for genetically modified plant quarantine fields

3. Draw up authorization regulations for technology resulting from agricultural researches

4. Formulate regulations governing intellectual property applications for R&D results.

5. Draw up review regulations governing the modification of non-urban lands into lands for agricultural biotech R&D use as well as for business production facilities.

6. Implementation points for the Industrial Technology Development Program for the agricultural biotech industry

Core facilities

Establish core facilities

1. Genetically modified plant quarantine testing hothouses, net houses, and experimental fields.

2. Necessary equipment for functional gene research such as analytic instrumentation for nucleic acid sequencing as well as analytic system for nucleic acid micro-sequence, etc.

Estimated completion

1. Establish a five-hectare quarantine testing facility within the Agricultural Research Institute, including hothouses, net houses, experimental fields, and others.

2. Expand construction of gene transfer plant quarantine facilities at the National Taiwan University and the World Vegetable Center (AVRDC).

3. Establish functional gene research laboratories in the Academia Sinica as well as Chung Hsing University.

Combined Benefits Annual industry investment volume NT$50 million NT$100 million
Annual domestic production value NT$2.5 billion NT$3.5 billion
Annual additional employment opportunities 50 jobs 70 jobs
Annual international cooperation ventures 3 projects 5 projects
Annual personnel training and allocation 37 people 65 people


Short-, mid-, and long-term goals of the agricultural biotech plant seedling industry ( assessment chart 2 )

  Assessment items Mid-term ( 2003-2008 ) Long-term ( 2003-2012 )
Upstream Annual presented theses (No. of volumes) 25 30
Annual approved patents (No. of cases) 3 5
Mid-stream Annual technological transfer (No. of cases/income) 7 cases/
NT$500,000
10 cases/
NT$1 million
Annual cooperative ventures between industry and academic sectors / technological services (No. of cases) 25 30
No. of technology brought in (No. of cases annually) 5 5
Annual promotional activities (e.g. symposia or exhibition) 5 sessions 5 sessions
Basic Infrastructure Amendment and drafting of laws Estimated completion

Study and add or amend laws according to the needs of industry development.

Estimated completion

Study and add or amend laws according to the needs of industry development.

Core facilities Estimated completion

Based on the needs of research and industry developments, increase establishment of related core facilities.

Estimated completion

Based on the needs of research and industry developments, increase establishment of related core facilities.

Combined Benefits Annual industry investment volume NT$100 million NT$100 million
Annual domestic production value NT$4.5 billion NT$5.5 billion
Annual additional employment opportunities 90 jobs 110 jobs
Annual international cooperation ventures 7 projects 10 projects
Annual personnel training and allocation 90 people 120 people
Policy benefits or non-quantitative benefits:
 
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